Client Server
In the concrete-example-client-server GitHub repository, we have a more complete example project of an application that is composed of a client and a server.
This example demonstrates the use of the following aspects:
  • Building Client Server architecture
  • Communicating via TcpStream
  • Using serialization to exchange encrypted data
  • Using serialization to save a client key locally and save processing time
  • Creating a generic function for use with different Fhe types
  • Simple multithreading on the server side to handle multiple clients at the same time

Server explanation

Communication is achieved via a tcp connection. The server is the listener, so it creates a TcpListener that listens for incoming connections on localhost port 8080.
When a client initiates a connection, the main server thread calls the handle_client function in a new thread (and also moves the tcp connection to this new thread).
If we did not create another thread, a client connected to the server would have to wait for the previous client to finish and end its connection before proceeding.
fn main() -> std::io::Result<()> {
let listener = TcpListener::bind("127.0.0.1:8080")?;
println!("Server is listening");
// accept connections and process them sequentially
for stream in listener.incoming() {
println!("A client initiated connection");
std::thread::spawn(move || {
handle_client(stream?)
});
}
Ok(())
}
The first thing that the server does is receive and deserialize the ServerKey sent by the client. Then, it immediately calls set_server_key.
fn handle_client(mut stream: TcpStream) -> std::io::Result<()> {
println!("[Server] <---- [Client]: Receiving server keys from client");
let server_keys: ServerKey = bincode::deserialize_from(&mut stream).unwrap();
set_server_key(server_keys);
/// ...
///
Ok(())
}
Once the key is set, the function starts an infinite loop.
The first step of the loop is the server receiving a "token" sent from the client, to know if the client wishes to stop the connection.
fn handle_client(mut stream: TcpStream) -> std::io::Result<()> {
/// ...
loop {
let choice = stream.read_u8()?;
if choice == 0 {
println!("[Server] <---- [Client]: User said good bye");
break;
}
/// ...
}
Ok(())
}
The second step is rather simple: The server expects the client to send 3 FheUint3s; the server deserializes them and performs a fhe_computation on them; and, finally, the server serializes the results and sends them to the client.
fn handle_client(mut stream: TcpStream) -> std::io::Result<()> {
// ...
loop {
// ...
{
println!("[Server] <---- [Client]: Receiving a, b, c");
let a: FheUint3 = bincode::deserialize_from(&mut stream).unwrap();
let b: FheUint3 = bincode::deserialize_from(&mut stream).unwrap();
let c: FheUint3 = bincode::deserialize_from(&mut stream).unwrap();
print!("Computing...");
let result = fhe_computation(&a, &b, &c);
println!("done.");
println!("[Server] ----> [Client]: Sending Result");
bincode::serialize_into(&mut stream, &result).unwrap();
}
// ...
}
Ok(())
}
The last step is similar to the previous one. The difference is that the server expects and uses FheUint16.
fn handle_client(mut stream: TcpStream) -> std::io::Result<()> {
// ...
loop {
// ...
{
println!("[Server] <---- [Client]: Receiving a, b, c");
let a: FheUint16 = bincode::deserialize_from(&mut stream).unwrap();
let b: FheUint16 = bincode::deserialize_from(&mut stream).unwrap();
let c: FheUint16 = bincode::deserialize_from(&mut stream).unwrap();
print!("Computing...");
let result = fhe_computation(&a, &b, &c);
println!("done.");
println!("[Server] ----> [Client]: Sending Result");
bincode::serialize_into(&mut stream, &result).unwrap();
}
}
Ok(())
}
The fhe_computation is a generic function defined as:
fn fhe_computation<'a, T>(a: &'a T, b: &'a T, c: &'a T) -> T
where &'a T: Add<&'a T, Output=T>,
T: Mul<&'a T, Output=T>
{
(a + b) * c
}

Client explanation

The client code has a more code, as it does a bit more than just communicating with the server. It interacts via the standard input with a user and manages the keys, as well.
First, the client generates the ClientKey and the ServerKey. It uses the custom function key_gen to do so. The key_gen function's goal is to save the file on disk and reuse the saved keys to avoid regenerating them each time the client process starts, saving a lot of time.
use crate::details::{ask_for_exit, fhe16_from_stin, fhe3_from_stin, key_gen};
fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
let ( client_keys, mut server_keys) = key_gen()?;
// ...
Ok(())
}
use std::error::Error;
use std::fs::File;
use std::io::{BufReader, BufWriter, stdin};
use std::path::Path;
use concrete::{ClientKey, ConfigBuilder, FheUint3Parameters, ServerKey};
use concrete::prelude::*;
const CLIENT_KEY_FILE_PATH: &'static str = "client_key.bin";
const SERVER_KEY_FILE_PATH: &'static str = "server_key.bin";
pub fn key_gen() -> Result<(ClientKey, ServerKey), Box<dyn Error>> {
let client_key_path = Path::new(CLIENT_KEY_FILE_PATH);
let client_keys: ClientKey =
if client_key_path.exists() {
println!("Reading client keys from {}", CLIENT_KEY_FILE_PATH);
let mut file = BufReader::new(File::open(client_key_path)?);
bincode::deserialize_from(file)?
} else {
println!("No {} found, generating new keys and saving them", CLIENT_KEY_FILE_PATH);
let config = ConfigBuilder::all_disabled().enable_default_uint3().enable_default_uint16().build();
let k = ClientKey::generate(config);
let file = BufWriter::new(File::create(client_key_path)?);
bincode::serialize_into(file, &k)?;
k
};
let server_key_path = Path::new(SERVER_KEY_FILE_PATH);
let server_keys: ServerKey = if server_key_path.exists() {
println!("Reading server keys from {}", CLIENT_KEY_FILE_PATH);
let mut file = BufReader::new(File::open(server_key_path)?);
bincode::deserialize_from(file).unwrap()
} else {
println!("No {} found, generating new keys and saving them", SERVER_KEY_FILE_PATH);
let k = client_keys.generate_server_key();
let file = BufWriter::new(File::create(server_key_path)?);
bincode::serialize_into(file, &k).unwrap();
k
};
Ok((client_keys, server_keys))
}
Next, the tcp connection is initiated, and the ServerKey is sent to the server.
fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
let ( client_keys, mut server_keys) = key_gen()?;
println!("[Client] ----> [Server]: Connecting to server");
let mut stream = TcpStream::connect("127.0.0.1:8080")?;
println!("[Client] ----> [Server]: Sending Bootstrap Keys to server");
bincode::serialize_into(&mut stream, &server_keys)?;
Ok(())
}
Once the key was successfully sent, the client does the same thing as the server: it enters an infinite loop.
The first step of the loop is to send the value 1 to the server to tell it we want to continue.
fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
// ...
loop {
stream.write_u8(1)?;
// ...
}
Ok(())
}
Then, the client reads from the standard input 3 numbers that must fit in 3 bits. These numbers are then encrypted, serialized, and sent to the server.
Next, the client reads the result returned by the server and deserializes, decrypts, and prints the result on the standard output.
This is done again, but this time for numbers that can fit into 16 bits.
fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
// ...
loop {
// ...
{
let a = fhe3_from_stin(&client_keys);
let b = fhe3_from_stin(&client_keys);
let c = fhe3_from_stin(&client_keys);
println!("[Client] ----> [Server]: Sending a, b, c");
bincode::serialize_into(&mut stream, &a)?;
bincode::serialize_into(&mut stream, &b)?;
bincode::serialize_into(&mut stream, &c)?;
println!("[Client] <---- [Server]: Receiving result");
let result: FheUint3 = bincode::deserialize_from(&mut stream).unwrap();
let clear_result = result.decrypt(&client_keys);
println!("The result is: {}", clear_result);
}
{
let a = fhe16_from_stin(&client_keys);
let b = fhe16_from_stin(&client_keys);
let c = fhe16_from_stin(&client_keys);
println!("[Client] ----> [Server]: Sending a, b, c");
bincode::serialize_into(&mut stream, &a)?;
bincode::serialize_into(&mut stream, &b)?;
bincode::serialize_into(&mut stream, &c)?;
println!("[Client] <---- [Server]: Receiving result");
let result: FheUint16 = bincode::deserialize_from(&mut stream).unwrap();
let clear_result: u16 = result.decrypt(&client_keys);
println!("The result is: {}", clear_result);
}
// ...
}
Ok(())
}
Finally, the clients ask the user if it wishes to perform further computations. If that is the case, the client will send the value 0 to the server, letting it know that the connection can end.
fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
// ...
loop {
// ...
let should_exit = ask_for_exit();
if should_exit {
stream.write_u8(0)?;
break
}
}
Ok(())
}
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Server explanation
Client explanation